- Original article
- Open Access
Prevalence and prognostic value of increased uptake in bone SPECT/CT in asymptomatic wrists
© The Author(s) 2018
- Received: 2 August 2017
- Accepted: 13 December 2017
- Published: 12 February 2018
To evaluate the prevalence and prognostic value of increased uptake in SPECT/CT in asymptomatic wrists.
Forty-four patients (18 women, 26 men, median age 42.5 years, range 18–62 years) referred for bone SPECT/CT for painful symptomatic wrist (SW) were additionally imaged on their asymptomatic contralateral wrist (AW). Planar and SPECT/CT images of the SW and AW were performed between July 2014 and September 2016 and retrospectively evaluated for presence, localization, intensity and origin of uptake using a 4-point grading scale (0 = no uptake, 1 = low uptake, 2 = moderate uptake, 3 = high uptake). Fourteen patients with increased uptake in the AW were available for clinical follow-up (median follow-up: 11 months, range 3–15 months).
Thirty-one (70.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI): [54.8%, 83.2%]) patients showed increased uptake in the SW and 14 (31.8%, 95% CI: [18.6%, 47.6%]) in the contralateral AW. Mean maximum uptake grade in the SW was 1.48 (range 0–3) and 0.48 (range 0–2) in the AW, respectively. The SW showed significantly more locations with increased uptake (p < 0.001) and significantly higher maximum uptake grades compared to the AW (p < 0.001).
Abnormal uptake in AW was due to osteoarthritis (n = 7), mechanical overload (n = 5), trauma (n = 1) and a normal variation of an ankylosis (n = 1). No patient of the follow-up group developed spontaneous pain in the primarily AW with the exception of 5 patients where wrist examination triggered local pain in the anatomical region of increased SPECT/CT uptake.
One third of the contralateral asymptomatic wrists demonstrate low to intermediate grade uptake in bone SPECT/CT. The majority of uptake in the contralateral asymptomatic wrist remained clinically silent in the short time follow-up.
- Bone scintigraphy
Wrist pain is frequent and attributable to a diversity of diseases (Ciresi and Kerley 1993; Huellner et al. 2013; Pin et al. 1990). Depending on the symptoms, conventional x-rays are the first line imaging modality for the evaluation of wrist pain. Fractures, osteoarthritis and inflammatory changes are normally correctly diagnosed with x-rays or ultrasound. In patients where conventional imaging remains insufficient to depict the etiology of the complaints, MR, CT or conventional bone scintigraphy are commonly performed depending on the suspected diagnosis and availability of the different imaging modality. SPECT/CT (Single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) is increasingly used as a surrogate to conventional planar scintigraphic images, especially in pathologies involving complex anatomic regions like spine, wrist or foot (Buck et al. 2008; Bybel et al. 2008; Corre et al. 2016; Huellner et al. 2012; Linke et al. 2010; Mariani et al. 2010; Mohan et al. 2010; Nathan et al. 2012; Schleich et al. 2012; Shirley et al. 2016). In symptomatic patients increased uptake in SPECT/CT commonly narrows the differential diagnosis and is often able to pinpoint to the anatomical structure being causative for the patient’s symptoms and therefore guide the appropriate treatment. Schleich et al. used SPECT/CT in patients with unspecific wrist pain and described a correlation between the clinical diagnosis and SPECT/CT findings in 30 out of 51 patients (59%) (Schleich et al. 2012). Scintigraphic uptake in asymptomatic joints and bones with questionable clinical importance is well known in daily routine work and might lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Therefore the aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic value of abnormal uptake in bone SPECT/CT in asymptomatic wrists.
Forty-four patients (18 women, 26 men, median age 42.5 years, range 18–62 years) were referred for bone scintigraphy with SPECT/CT by dedicated wrist surgeons following a detailed clinical physical examination of both wrists. Eighty-eight wrists were divided into symptomatic ipsilateral wrists (SW) and asymptomatic contralateral wrist (AW). Main clinical indication for SPECT/CT imaging was as follows: chronic pain after trauma or suggested osteoarthritis in the symptomatic wrist/hand. Approval of the Ethics Committee was obtained for this study (EKNZ Nr: 2016–01647).
Dual phase planar and SPECT/CT images of the symptomatic and asymptomatic wrists were obtained between July 2014 and September 2016. In all patients, bone scintigraphy using 99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanedicarboxylic acid (99mTc-DPD) (Teceos, Behringwerke AG, Marburg) was performed. The radiotracer was injected intravenously (mean activity 676 MBq, range 619–719). Early phase planar images of both wrists were obtained 5 min after injection (matrix 256 × 256 pixels, field of view: 40 cm) with a hybrid SPECT/CT system with a built-in flat panel CT component (BrightView XCT; Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands). Planar late-phase images of both wrists were obtained 3 h after radiotracer injection (matrix 256 × 256 pixels, FOV 40 cm). Subsequently, SPECT/CT of the wrists was acquired. Patients were positioned prone with arms outstretched. SPECT was performed in step-and-shoot mode with 64 projections and a frame time of 20 s (SPECT frame format 128 × 128, 128 views over 360°, step and shoot noncircular acquisition). CT images were acquired in high-resolution mode with an isotropic voxel size of 0.33 × 0.33 × 0.33 mm (CT slice thickness 0.33 mm, matrix 512 × 512 mm) with 30 mA (219.3 mAs) and 120 kV and reconstructed with iterative filters. SPECT images were reconstructed with an iterative 3-D ordered subsets (4 iterations, 16 subsets) expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm (Astonish, Philips). In 5 patients SPECT/CT images were performed with additional arthrography like described in previously studies (Strobel et al. 2014). SPECT and CT images were fused automatically with a dedicated software (Extended Brilliance Workspace; Philips Healthcare), reformated in coronal and sagittal plane.
All images were analysed using the local PACS (Merlin PACS, Phönix- PACS, Freiburg, Germany). Images were evaluated by a dual board certified nuclear medicine physician and radiologist with more than 10 years experience in musculoskeletal SPECT/CT reading. The reader was blinded regarding the clinical information and painful wrist. Presence, localization, intensity of radionuclide uptake was assessed using a 4-point grading scale (0 = no uptake; 1 = low uptake = uptake slightly higher than in the normal bone, 2 = moderate uptake = uptake clearly higher than in the normal bone, 3 = high uptake = uptake strongly higher than in the normal bone). Additionally, abnormal CT findings without radionuclide uptake were assessed. Abnormal radionuclide uptake was categorised into the following categories: osteoarthritis, mechanical overload, inflammation, traumatic and others.
The statistical analysis were performed using Stata (version 14.1, StataCorp, College Station, Texas, USA). Differences in the number of localizations and the uptake grades were compared between the symptomatic and asymptomatic wrists utilizing frequency tables, descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Proportions were given with 95% Clopper-Pearson confidence intervals.
Patients with increased uptake (n = 14) in the asymptomatic wrist were subsequently invited for a clinical follow-up exam. Clinical follow up was performed after a median time interval of 9.9 months and a time range of 3–15 months. Clinical examination included assessment of patient’s handedness, profession, pain and previous operations or traumas. A detailed clinical examination was performed by the head of wrist surgery who was previously informed about the results of the initial radionuclide uptake in SPECT/CT imaging. Range of movement was tested, stability of the wrist was checked and focused compression in the area of increased uptake in the SPECT/CT images was performed to identify possible painful trigger points.
Summary of locations of joint and bone uptake in AW and SW
Locations of uptake in AW
Locations of uptake in SW
proximal interphalangeal II
distal interphalangeal III
ulnar styloid process
ulnar styloid process
In the SW abnormal uptake was related to osteoarthritis (n = 13), incipient osteoarthritis (n = 5) mechanical overload (n = 14), carpal boss (n = 4) or other etiologies (n = 7). In the AW abnormal uptake was classified as osteoarthritis (n = 7), mechanical overload (n = 5) or traumatic (n = 1). In 1 asymptomatic wrist a normal variation of an ankylosis between lunate and triquetrum bone was diagnosed in the CT without abnormal uptake.
Median age of the patients with uptake in the asymptomatic wrist classified as osteoarthritis was significantly higher (p = .03) with 47 years compared to 35 years of patients without osteoarthritis (mean age 50.1 years vs. 38.5 years).
Ten of 14 patients with increased uptake in the AW were available for detailed history and clinical follow-up examination. Four patients were only available for their follow-up interview by phone. No patient of the follow-up group developed spontaneous or stress related pain in the primarily asymptomatic wrist and in none of these patients a specific therapy was necessary during follow-up. One patient mentioned a decrease in physical stress after operation, but no pain. Two patients of the follow-up group had previous operations in the asymptomatic wrist. Three patients had a trauma many years ago. No instability was observed during stress testing. In 5 of 10 asymptomatic wrists focused palpation provoked pain in the region of primarily increased SPECT/CT tracer uptake. Localisations of the provoked pain where the following: CMC I, MCP I/II, pisotriquetral, between capitate and lunate and between hamate and triquetrum. Nine of our 14 patients with asymptomatic wrist uptake reported professions with intense manual daily work.
The results of this study confirms the presence of increased radionuclide uptake in late phase bone SPECT/CT imaging in approximately one third of asymptomatic wrists. The prevalence and intensity of uptake in asymptomatic wrists was significantly lower compared to symptomatic wrists. In AW only 1 case (2%) of increased early phase uptake was observed in contrast to 7 (16%) symptomatic patients with increased early phase uptake. This confirms the understanding that early phase uptake reflects primarily active disorders like active inflammation, osteoarthritis or traumatic lesions which are prone to be symptomatic and often require therapy. In contrast incidentally observed late phase SPECT/CT bone uptake in AW showed no diagnostic or therapeutic impact during follow-up time of our patients. Similar observations where previously stated in the literature: Bhure et al. demonstrated the correlation of morphology, SPECT/CT uptake and symptoms in 24 wrists of 21 patients with suspected carpal boss and the considerable number of wrists had discordant findings: absence of local pain with low grade scintigraphic uptake was observed in 3 wrists and moderate uptake in one wrist; local pain without scintigraphic uptake was seen in 6 wrists (Bhure et al. 2015). Chong et al. recently investigated bone tracer uptake in the accessory navicular bone patients and observed that 8 (27%) patients had grade 1 and 2 patients (3%) grade 2 uptake (Chong et al. 2016). These results with a prevalence of approximately one third of increased uptake in the foot in asymptomatic patients were in line with our findings in the wrist. Moreover, Avengen et al. investigated patients with knee arthroplasties and found, in general, higher SPECT/CT uptake in symptomatic compared to asymptomatic knees (Awengen et al. 2016). Accordingly, increased radionuclide uptake was also observed in asymptomatic patients. The finding in our study that patients with asymptomatic uptake due to osteoarthritis where significantly older than patients without osteoarthritic uptake supports the theory that joint degeneration increases with age and is often asymptomatic because of missing active inflammation. We know from the large Framingham study with over 1000 participants that about 13.3% of older men and 26.2% of older women have at least one hand joint affected by symptomatic osteoarthritis (Zhang et al. 2002). Interestingly, the prevalence of osteoarthritis of at least one affected joint (symptomatic and asymptomatic) on hand x-rays was extremely high (88,6% in men and 94.4% in women), showing that the correlation of morphologic osteoarthritis with clinical symptoms of the hand/wrist is even worse than correlation of scintigraphic uptake with clinical symptoms. Over the age of 70 years, approximately 5% of women and 3% of men have symptomatic osteoarthritis of the first carpo-metacarpal joint. There are many different factors contributing to pain in osteoarthritis, which are extensively discussed in the article of Hunter et al. in 2008 (Hunter et al. 2008). The two factors, which are probably mainly responsible for increased uptake on bone scans are the associated arthritis/synovitis causing early phase uptake and the damage to the subchondral bone causing late phase uptake. Besides osteoarthritis there are various conditions which might cause increased bone turnover and uptake on bone scan like older trauma, benign bone lesions like enchondroma or osteonecrosis.
SPECT/CT has been proven to be helpful in patients with unspecific wrist pain for the detection of occult fractures and special situations like ulnocarpal impaction (Huellner et al. 2013; Corre et al. 2016; Schleich et al. 2012; Shirley et al. 2016; Strobel et al. 2014; Allainmat et al. 2013). Wrist SPECT/CT is often used as third-line problem solving modality in unclear cases after X-ray and CT or MR imaging. Compared to MR, SPECT/CT is less vulnerable to artefacts caused by metallic implants and is feasible in patients with contraindications for MR imaging. The combination of intraarticular contrast and SPECT/CT, called SPECT/CT arthrography, even enables the visualization of important structures like TFCC (triangular fibrocartilage complex), LT (lunotriquetral), SL (scapholunar) ligaments and cartilage and delivers results comparable to MR arthrography (Strobel et al. 2014; Kruger et al. 2011).
In the late phase images radionuclide uptake was observed in locations of asymptomatic wrists predominantly caused by osteoarthritis or mechanical overload. Heavy physical work is a known factor of osteoarthritis (Schmid et al. 1999). Schmid et al. found typical radiological changes of osteoarthritis in metacarpophalangeal joints in heavily working farmers. In our study we could also observe a positive correlation between patients work history and SPECT/CT findings. Nine of our 14 patients with asymptomatic wrist uptake underwent professions with intense manual work.
Limitations of our studies may be seen with regard of the relatively short clinical follow-up of a median follow-up time of 9.9 months. It remains unclear whether in a subset of patients with clinically silent wrists but abnormal radionuclide uptake might develop clinical symptoms in a long-term follow-up. This was a retrospective study with limited number of patients available for detailed clinical follow-up.
Increased uptake in SPECT/CT of asymptomatic wrists can be found in approximately one third of patients and is often low to intermediate grade uptake. The majority of uptake in asymptomatic wrists is clinically irrelevant in a median follow-up time of 9.9 months. Careful correlation of increased uptake with clinical investigation is necessary to avoid overdiagnosis and unnecessary therapeutic interventions.
We thank the team of the chief technician Savo Matijasevic for their great support and realization of SPECT/CT investigations.
MA made substantial contribution to the conception, data acquisition, analysis of data and wrote main parts of the final manuscript. UH achieved the clinical data, contributed to the conception, data acquisition. JER made substantial contribution to conception, design and data analysis. MSP was involved in the data analysis and interpretation and wrote parts of the manuscript. DL performed the statistical analysis and wrote parts of the manuscript. DW was involved in the conception and design and revised the manuscript. KS mainly concepted and designed the study, was involved in the interpretation of the data and drafting and revising the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
The study was approved by the local ethics committee (Ethikkommission Zentral- und Nordwestschweiz (EKNZ), Registration-Nr: 2016–01647). All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants who underwent clinical follow-up. Informed consent from the other patients was waived by the ethics committee due to the retrospective design.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
- Allainmat L, Aubault M, Noel V, Baulieu F, Laulan J, Eder V (2013) Use of hybrid SPECT/CT for diagnosis of radiographic occult fractures of the wrist. Clin Nucl Med 38(6):e246–e251. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0b013e318263819eView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Awengen R, Rasch H, Amsler F, Hirschmann MT (2016) Symptomatic versus asymptomatic knees after bilateral total knee arthroplasty: what is the difference in SPECT/CT? Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 43(4):762–772. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-015-3278-0View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bhure U, Hug U, Huellner MW, Grunig H, Zander A, Del Sol Perez Lago M et al (2015) The value of SPECT/CT in carpal boss. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 42(12):1883–1890. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-015-3151-1View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Buck AK, Nekolla S, Ziegler S, Beer A, Krause BJ, Herrmann K et al (2008) Spect/Ct. J Nucl Med 49(8):1305–1319. doi: https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.107.050195.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bybel B, Brunken RC, DiFilippo FP, Neumann DR, Wu G, Cerqueira MD (2008) SPECT/CT imaging: clinical utility of an emerging technology. Radiographics 28(4):1097–1113. doi: https://doi.org/10.1148/rg.284075203View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chong A, Ha JM, Lee JY (2016) Clinical meaning of hot uptake on bone scan in symptomatic accessory navicular bones. Nucl Med Mol Imaging 50(4):322–328. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13139-016-0452-7View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ciresi KF, Kerley SM (1993) Wrist pain. West J Med 158(4):401–402PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Corre AL, Huynh KP, Dhaliwal RS, Bain GI (2016) Development of a protocol for SPECT/CT in the assessment of wrist disorders. J Wrist Surg 5(4):297–305. doi: https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1583314.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Huellner MW, Burkert A, Strobel K, Perez Lago Mdel S, Werner L, Hug U et al (2013) Imaging non-specific wrist pain: interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy of SPECT/CT, MRI, CT, bone scan and plain radiographs. PLoS One 8(12):e85359. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085359View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Huellner MW, Strobel K, Hug U, von Wartburg U, Veit-Haibach P (2012) SPECT/CT in diagnostics of the hand joint. Radiologe 52(7):621–628. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00117-011-2269-9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hunter DJ, McDougall JJ, Keefe FJ (2008) The symptoms of osteoarthritis and the genesis of pain. Rheum Dis Clin N Am 34(3):623–643. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rdc.2008.05.004View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kruger T, Hug U, Hullner MW, Schleich F, Veit-Haibach P, von Wartburg U et al (2011) SPECT/CT arthrography of the wrist in ulnocarpal impaction syndrome. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 38(4):792. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-010-1712-xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Linke R, Kuwert T, Uder M, Forst R, Wuest W (2010) Skeletal SPECT/CT of the peripheral extremities. AJR Am J Roentgenol 194(4):W329–W335. doi: https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.09.3288View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mariani G, Bruselli L, Kuwert T, Kim EE, Flotats A, Israel O et al (2010) A review on the clinical uses of SPECT/CT. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 37(10):1959–1985. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-010-1390-8View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohan HK, Gnanasegaran G, Vijayanathan S, Fogelman I (2010) SPECT/CT in imaging foot and ankle pathology-the demise of other coregistration techniques. Semin Nucl Med 40(1):41–51. doi: https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2009.08.004View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nathan M, Mohan H, Vijayanathan S, Fogelman I, Gnanasegaran G (2012) The role of 99mTc-diphosphonate bone SPECT/CT in the ankle and foot. Nucl Med Commun 33(8):799–807. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0b013e328355880bView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pin PG, Young VL, Gilula LA, Weeks PM (1990) Wrist pain: a systematic approach to diagnosis. Plast Reconstr Surg 85(1):42–46View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schleich FS, Schurch M, Huellner MW, Hug U, von Wartburg U, Strobel K et al (2012) Diagnostic and therapeutic impact of SPECT/CT in patients with unspecific pain of the hand and wrist. EJNMMI Res 2(1):53. doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/2191-219X-2-53View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Schmid L, Dreier D, Muff B, Allgayer B, Schlumpf U (1999) Lebenslange landwirtschaftliche Schwerarbeit und Arthroseentwicklung an der Hand–Eine kasuistische Untersuchung. Z Rheumatol 58(6):345–350. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s003930050193View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shirley RA, Dhawan RT, Rodrigues JN, Evans DM (2016) Bone SPECT-CT: An additional diagnostic tool for undiagnosed wrist pain. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 69(10):1424–1429. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2016.04.011View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Strobel K, Steurer-Dober I, Da Silva AJ, Huellner MW, del Sol Perez Lago M, Bodmer E et al (2014) Feasibility and preliminary results of SPECT/CT arthrography of the wrist in comparison with MR arthrography in patients with suspected ulnocarpal impaction. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 41(3):548–555. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00259-013-2584-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Y, Niu J, Kelly-Hayes M, Chaisson CE, Aliabadi P, Felson DT (2002) Prevalence of symptomatic hand osteoarthritis and its impact on functional status among the elderly: the Framingham study. Am J Epidemiol 156(11):1021–1027View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar